the submission of Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and the clans of Habashat." This inscription tells us that Shamir of Dhu-Raydan, who is almost certainly the Himyarite king Shamir Yuhahmid, requested assistance from the Habashat clans to go to war with Saba, a rivaling Yemeni kingdom.The inscription also credits Ilmuqah, who was the moon God that most inhabitants on both sides of the Red Sea worshiped, for granting them victory over their Sabaean rivals. Eduard Glaser, a renowned Austrian epigraphist and historian, Habeshas were originally from Southeastern Yemen who lived east of the Hadhramaut kingdom in the modern district of Mahra.Perhaps the best way to define it is by not trying at all.Habesha in many ways is a state of mind - hard to describe, but you know it when you see it.
With Habasha originally used to describe people who gathered incense, this term was also given to the region by early Arab merchants and travelers as a geographic expression that some of the inhabitants of the Horn adopted over time.After conquering neighboring kingdoms and territories on both sides of the Red Sea, Ezana styled himself as: In reference to Ezana's inscription, Professor Max Müller, a German philologist, believed the King of the Habashat had no common territory with the King of Aksum and the two kingdoms were separate appeared evident to him.Based on the inscriptions the Aksumites left behind, they certainly did not regard themselves or their territory as Habesha.So it raises a question: when was Habesha used in reference to the Horn?It was not until long after Aksumite kingdom had ended that Arab travelers and geographers began to describe the Horn region and its inhabitants as Habeshas. Opposite al-Yaman there is also a big town, which is the sea-port from which the Habasha crossed the sea to al-Yaman, and nearby is the island of `Aql." It should be noted that Habesha was frequently used as mere geographical expressions by early Arab and European travelers in much the same way as the entire eastern African littoral, including much of the Horn, was once encompassed within the term ‘Azania’.